By Ritsuko K. Pooh
Complex imaging applied sciences corresponding to transvaginal sonography, 3D expertise, and MRIs have unfolded a brand new period within the prenatal analysis and administration of principal anxious method (CNS) abnormalities. An Atlas of Fetal vital worried method affliction: prognosis and administration comprises over a hundred photos of congenital CNS anomalies and mind accidents in utero. It covers the right way to use complicated neuroimaging applied sciences for exact CNS analysis and obstetrical administration, presents certain illustrations of the strategies for postnatal neurosurgical administration, and is helping resolution questions about the timing of mind insult in utero and in cerebral palsy.
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Additional info for An Atlas of Fetal Central Nervous System Disease: Diagnosis and Management
Pooh RK. B-mode and Doppler studies of the abnormal fetus in the first trimester. In Chervenak FA, Kurjak A, eds. Fetal Medicine . Carnforth, UK: Parthenon Publishing, 1999:46–51 3. Timor-Tritsch IE, Monteagudo A. Transvaginal fetal neurosonography: standardization of the planes and sections by anatomic landmarks. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 1996;8:42–7 4. Monteagudo A, Reuss ML, Timor-Tritsch IE. Imaging the fetal brain in the second and third trimesters using transvaginal sonography. Obstet Gynecol 1991;77:27–32 5.
1). 2). 4) opened up a new field in medicine, ‘neurosonography’ 3 . The transvaginal approach to the normal fetal brain during the second and third trimester was introduced at the beginning of the 1990s. It was the first practical application of three-dimensional central nervous system assessment by two-dimensional ultrasound 4 . Transvaginal observation of the fetal brain offers sagittal and coronal views of the brain from the fetal parietal direction 5 – 8 through the fontanelles and/or the sagittal suture as ultrasound windows.
Many tissue characterization techniques have been reported for this purpose, but most of them need particular algorithms; special software, and often sophisticated computers, which are difficult to supply in many general hospitals. 8) for clinical tissue characterization; is based on the measurement of the width of the gray-level histogram. 8 Examples of gray-level histogram width (GLHW). GLHW in a normal placenta every 2 weeks during pregnancy and a large GLHW in a Grannum III placenta 18 . There is no influence of the device and image depth on the GLHW in studies on ultrasound phantoms.
An Atlas of Fetal Central Nervous System Disease: Diagnosis and Management by Ritsuko K. Pooh